Support of Tumor Endothelial Cells by Chemokine Receptors.
Front Immunol ,
Brian A Zabel
Tumor-associated vascular endothelium comprises a specialized and diverse group of endothelial cells that, although not cancer themselves, are integral to cancer progression. Targeting the tumor vasculature can have significant efficacy in reducing tumor burden, although loss of efficacy due to acquisition of resistance mechanisms is common. Here we review mechanisms by which tumor endothelial cells (TEC) utilize chemokine receptors to support tumor progression. We illustrate how chemokine receptors support and may serve as functional markers of the diverse TEC population. We focus on ACKR1 (DARC), ACKR3 (CXCR7), CXCR4, and CCR2, as these are the best studied chemokine receptors in TEC; and suggest that targeting these receptors on the tumor vasculature may prove efficacious in slowing or reversing tumor growth. We also mention CXCR2 and CXCR3 as important mediators or tumor angiogenesis, given their distinct roles with angiogenic and angiostatic chemokines, respectively.