J Immunol Jul 15, 2012Author(s):
Chemokine (CC motif) receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) binds leukocyte chemoattractant chemerin and can regulate local levels of the attractant, but does not itself support cell migration. In this study, we show that CCRL2 and VCAM-1 are upregulated on cultured human and mouse vascular endothelial cells (EC) and cell lines by proinflammatory stimuli. CCRL2 induction is dependent on NF-κB and JAK/STAT signaling pathways, and activated endothelial cells specifically bind chemerin. In vivo, CCRL2 is constitutively expressed at high levels by lung endothelial cells and at lower levels by liver endothelium; and liver but not lung EC respond to systemic LPS injection by further upregulation of the receptor. Plasma levels of total chemerin are elevated in CCRL2(-/-) mice and are significantly enhanced after systemic LPS treatment in CCRL2(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Following acute LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation in vivo, chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1)(+) NK cell recruitment to the airways is significantly impaired in CCRL2(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. In vitro, chemerin binding to CCRL2 on endothelial cells triggers robust adhesion of CMKLR1(+) lymphoid cells through an α(4)β(1) integrin/VCAM-1-dependent mechanism. In conclusion, CCRL2 is expressed by EC in a tissue- and activation-dependent fashion, regulates circulating chemerin levels and its bioactivity, and enhances chemerin- and CMKLR1-dependent lymphocyte/EC adhesion in vitro and recruitment to inflamed airways in vivo. Its expression and/or induction on EC by proinflammatory stimuli provide a novel and specific mechanism for the local enrichment of chemerin at inflammatory sites, regulating the recruitment of CMKLR1(+) cells.